Pattern of Retinopathy: Although the locus of toxic damage is parafoveal in many eyes, Asian patients often show an extramacular pattern of damage. Dose: We recommend a maximum daily HCQ use of 5.0 mg/kg real weight, which correlates better with risk than ideal weight. Can chloroquine go through skin Chloroquin malaria Hydroxychloroquine internal bleeding Plaquenil and stem cell injection PLAQUENIL hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets is indicated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus, in patients who have not responded satisfactorily to drugs with less potential for serious side effects. Hydroxychloroquine is taken orally, and rapidly absorbed and metabolized by the liver. It is highly tissue bound and concentrates in melanin-rich pigments like the retina. It is excreted unchanged in the urine, and has a half-life of 45 days. The amount of hydroxychloroquine excreted in the urine as unchanged drug ranges from 6% to 60% median 23%, and 17% is excreted in the urine as metabolized drug. Twenty-four percent to 25% of hydroxychloroquine is excreted in feces, 5% is sloughed off in skin, and 45% is stored in lean tissues. Risk of Toxicity: The risk of toxicity is dependent on daily dose and duration of use. There are no similar demographic data for CQ, but dose comparisons in older literature suggest using 2.3 mg/kg real weight. Hydroxychloroquine metabolism Side Effects of Plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine, Warnings, Uses, Hydroxychloroquine - American Osteopathic College of. Chloroquine sensitive malaria areasChloroquine and tonic waterChloroquine phosphate structureHydroxychloroquine cause weight lossDoes plaquenil help osteoarthritis Hydroxychloroquine is usually taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. The dosage and length of treatment are based on your medical condition and response to therapy. In children, dosage is also based on weight. Hydroxychloroquine Oral Uses, Side Effects, Interactions.. Hydroxychloroquine Information for Providers AIDSinfo. Plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine Uses, Dosage, Side Effects.. Abstract Background The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations on screening for chloroquine CQ and hydroxychloroquine HCQ retinopathy are revised in light of new information about the prevalence of toxicity, risk factors, fundus distribution, and effectiveness of screening tools. Hydroxychloroquine has similar pharmacokinetics to chloroquine, with rapid gastrointestinal absorption and elimination by the kidneys. Cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6, 2C8, 3A4 and 3A5 metabolize hydroxychloroquine to N-desethylhydroxychloroquine. Pharmacodynamics. Antimalarials are lipophilic weak bases and easily pass plasma membranes. Jan 05, 2020 Hydroxychloroquine is a well tolerated medication for various rheumatologic and dermatologic conditions. Its main side effects are gastrointestinal upset, skin rash, headache, and ocular toxicity. Within the eye, hydroxychloroquine negatively impacts the cornea, ciliary body, and retina.